Marine Pollution refers to the introduction of harmful materials into the sea which has an adverse effect on the environment. Such pollutants include pesticides, fertilizer, organochlorine, oils, and a variety of other waste products. The rise in marine pollutants leading to a very unfavorable condition of living which is responsible for the extinction of marine mammals and fishes. Marine pollution affects humans too, especially the peoples who live in the coastal areas.
Causes of Marine Pollution
There are not a few causes of marine pollution but its number exceeds over all the limits. While it is pesticides, chemical fertilizers, industrial wastes, agriculture wastes, sewage, and many more. These all are highly responsible for marine pollution or in its rise. Below are the major causes of marine pollution which everyone should know.
1. Industrial Wastes
One of the commonest and major causes of marine pollution is industrial wastes. Every day, a new industry establishes in the world and some of them further lead to form marine pollutants. As of reports, over 70,000 tons of zinc, 17000 tons of copper, 12000 tons of lead, and 8000 tons of arsenic are discharged every year into the ocean.
Despite these, most of the industrial substances are toxic such as plastics, oils, acids, alkalies, etc. And when they released these toxic substances into the oceans or seas, it directly affects the aquatic animals along with the environment.
2. Agriculture Wastes
The second and very mutual cause of marine pollution is agricultural practices. In this modern world, farmers like to do easy works and therefore they use chemical fertilizers for the instant growth of their crops. Although, they aren’t aware of the fact how it harms the environment. The used chemicals were later carried by the rains to the ocean and it increases marine pollution. In India, over 55,000 tons of pesticides are used annually and 25% of them were carried to the oceans.
3. Municipal Waste
The next very common cause is municipal wastage. Every house has a kitchen and every kitchen has numerous products including environment friendly or opposite. Such products are carried out into the ocean by some private waste municipal corporations. They use to collect the wastes and thereafter they dumped into the oceans. Especially, the houses or hotels located near the coastal areas directly threw out the wastes into the oceans.
4. Sewage Treatment
Earlier we talked about the household wastes taken by the waste municipal parties. But in the same way, those products are carried out into the oceans by sewage. Still, there is a number of cities which has not any proper sewage treatment. Further, the sewage transfers the wastes to rivers and thereafter to the oceans or seas.
5. Volcanic Eruption
The very dangerous natural cause of marine pollution is a volcanic eruption. It carried out a huge amount of harmful chemicals into the water bodies. It severely affects the water quality and damages aquatic livings on a very large scale. Although, it is natural and can’t be stopped so peoples mostly like to ignore it.
Above are only the major causes of marine pollution. Apart from these, there are so many causes like oil leakage, deep-sea mining, tanker accident, and petroleum washed off from roads. These all cause the rise in marine pollution and these shouldn’t be ignored by humans.
Effects of Marine Pollution
Marine pollution affects the environment severely and brings an adverse change to the environment. The effects included Humans, Plants, and Animals, especially aquatic ones. Thousands of Aquatic species are being extinct only because of marine pollution. Coastal area’s peoples are losing their habitat only because of marine pollution. Likely, there are many more effects of marine pollution which have been defined below.
- Animals Life
Marine pollution harshly affects animal life on a large scale. Marine animals lost their habitat because of the rise in pollution in the coastal areas. They are even unable to take clean water anymore. And mostly, aquatic animals affected by marine pollution as it creates an unfavorable condition in the sea or ocean.
When there is oil on the surface of the ocean, it severely affects the migrating bird. When the birds try to drink water during their journey, the oil gets trapped between their feature and they are unable to fly anymore. This resulted in their death. Hence, Marine pollution is also the cause of birds and animals’ extinctions.
- Human Life
Peoples think that marine pollution hasn’t any effect on their life. Although it’s wrong thinking and the truth is that marine pollution is responsible for millions of people’s death. This effect would mainly be seen in the coastal areas. Peoples there mostly depend on the oceans and seas. Even they use to take fishes in their lunch because of its easy availability. And increasing marine pollution led to the end of aquatic animals and further it affects humans.
In fact, many marine and aquatic plants are very important in human life. And again, marine pollution destroys them and later it became a problem in human life.
Marine pollution plays a key role in the process of Eutrophication. Now, what is Eutrophication? It is a phenomenon in which the surface of the water body gets covered by wastes which further interferes with the aquatic plant’s process of photosynthesis. As result, the plants are unable to form oxygen and later the aquatic animals die. It majorly causes by the oil as it does not sink but floats on the water surface.
Preventions of Marine Pollution
After being aware of the causes and effects of marine pollution, everyone needs to know its preventions. Now there are small steps and also big steps for it. Factories wastes can’t be stopped by individuals but the government can. Let you know below the major steps to prevent marine pollution.
The first and very important way to prevent marine pollution is to avoid non-biodegradable products. These are the products that never decomposed and thus end up polluting the environment. Such products are plastic, metals, polythene, etc. Avoiding these products can prevent marine pollution on a vast level.
Never throw the wastes in open land and instead try to dump them in the dustbins. Also, do not throw the toxic wastes in the sewage. In addition to this, try to recycle the products or learn their reuse methods.
Agriculture practices that include chemical fertilizers should be minimized. Instead, this, the farmers should use the natural fertilizers as it is both human and environment friendly.
One of the best ways to reduce marine pollution is proper sewage treatment. This can be done in both chemical and physical ways which result in the removal of the pollutants from the water. This also helps to prevent eutrophication. So, above are some common and major ways to prevent marine pollution on a broad level.