Essay on Water Pollution | Types, Causes, and Effects

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Water is one of the most precious resources on the earth for survival. Nearly two-thirds (about 71%) of the earth’s surface has been covered with water. About 97% of the earth’s water will be found in oceans. Only 0.5% of the earth’s water is drinkable which is available in rivers, lakes, and swamps.

Yet you see a river or pond in your surroundings, you would realize how much they have been polluted. The rise in water pollution could lead the earth to a next-level problem. Let us know about water pollution through this impressive essay.

What is Water Pollution?

Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies that generally caused because of human activities. Humans are consistently polluting the water that results in the extinction of aquatic animals. Pollutants like, domestic waste, industrial wastes, plastics, chemicals, etc are being dumped into the water bodies. This leads to the contamination of water bodies.

Causes of Water Pollution

There are many factors responsible that causes water pollution, while it will be natural or by humans. However, humans are playing a major role in the rise of water pollution. While talking about the causes of water pollution, we shouldn’t forget the industries. They are the main cause of water pollution as they dumped their wastes into the water bodies. They contain toxic chemicals and pollutants such as sulfur, nitrate, lead, mercury, and many more.

Another common cause of water pollution is household waste. Domestic products like plastics, detergents, paint, oil, etc end up producing sewage and wastewater. Even in many countries, these household products were dumped into the seas. This further harm the aquatic animals. Sometimes oil leaks into water bodies which also poses a threat to marine life. This happens because oil is made up of non-polar molecules where water has polar molecules. Therefore, it doesn’t dissolve in water and causes problems for marine pollution and wildlife.

Farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides that help plants in their growth. But, when these effective chemicals mix-up with water, they resulted in harmful pollutants that can affect the plants and animals. Also, it combines along with rainwater and reaches the water bodies that resulted in water pollution. There are also many causes of water pollution, such as global warming, acid rain, leakage from sewer lines, and much more.

Effects of Water Pollution

Water pollution leads to causes several problems in the environment. While it will be humans, plants, or animals, every living organism could be affected by water pollution. The type of pollutant and its concentration decides how much effective the water pollution could be. Below are the major effects of water pollution.

    1. Water pollution is affecting human health every day. According to a study, water pollution caused 1.8 billion death worldwide in 2015. Not only this, but impure water has become the reason for the sickness of about 1 billion every year. Drinking contaminated water leads to many health problems. Such as Typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, giardia, and much more.
    2. This is general knowledge that water pollution will affect the organisms that live in water. And this is true and happening. Water pollution is affecting aquatic animals on a large scale. Such as chemicals in water bodies, which helps in the formation of algae. The algae create a layer upon the water surface that decreases the amount of oxygen in water bodies. Thus, it ends up affecting aquatic animals and plants.
    3. Water pollution is well in contaminating the food chain. When plants are grown in polluted water, they resulted to introduce toxins into their food that could harm human health. Similarly, when the aquatic animals are grown in polluted water, they became harmful for the animals, birds, and peoples who take them as food. This leads to unbalance in the food chain.
    4. We know that water is limited and especially freshwater. But water pollution making it contaminated could result in a lack of potable water. The UN says that there are billions of peoples who have not accessed to pure or clean water, mostly from the rural side.

How to Reduce Water Pollution?

Till here, we have seen all the major causes and effects of water pollution. But now it should be our responsibility to follow the prominent steps to reduce or control water pollution. Below are given the major steps that must be taken in order to stop water pollution.

  • Conserve Water: Our first step should be to conserve water. Conservation of water is very important to maintain the water level. These small steps can make a large difference.
  • Sewage Treatment: We need better treatment of sewage. Disposing of contaminated products into the water causes water pollution. So, it must be treated before throwing in any water body. It will be also beneficial for agriculture as the waters can be used for irrigation after removing its toxic contents.
  • Use Eco-Friendly Products: This is mandatory to use environmentally friendly products. By using biodegradable products in our homes, we can reduce water pollution at the domestic level. Refuse to use products like plastics and toxic chemicals.
  • Ban on Factories: Government should need to ban all the factories which used to dump their wastes into water bodies. The factories are playing the main role in water pollution that must be needed to stop.
  • Use Natural Manure: Using natural manure is the best way to stop agricultural water pollution. Chemicals pesticides resulted to make the water toxic that may harm the plants, birds, and animals. So, try to use natural manure that is also good for human health.


Here we have covered almost all the topics of water pollution. The moral of this essay is to educate the peoples about water pollution. That is how water pollution affecting the world. Everyone knows the importance of water, while it would be for drinking, washing, or anything. Everywhere water plays its role with us. But we the humans aren’t serious about it.

We are polluting the water bodies every day. If it isn’t affecting us, it doesn’t mean that water pollution hasn’t any bad effect. We have seen earlier how water pollution is responsible for millions of people’s deaths. So, being a responsible person of this world, we ensure ourself to maintain discipline towards the uses of water. Follow out the measure steps that help to prevent water pollution.

Next to read: Essay on air pollution

FAQs on Water Pollution

Water pollution is a result of water contamination which causes because of the wrong activities of human beings.

There is a number of factors that are responsible for water pollution.
-Dumping household product into water.
-Releasing factories wastes into water bodies.
-Use of chemical fertilizers.
-Acid rain, oil leakage into water bodies, and much more.

There are several effects of water pollutions, while on humans, plants, or animals.
-Destruction of the ecosystem.
-Extinction of aquatic animals.
-Bad effect on human health that resulted in diseases like typhoid and cholera.
-Raise problems in the living of marine wildlife.
-Plant food became toxic and further effects on the peoples who consume those foods.

We could follow out these measures steps to control or prevent water pollution.
-Use a proper way to use water and try to conserve it.
-Reduce the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers for agriculture, instead use natural fertilizers.
-Collect rain waters and try to use them for irrigation and for other works.
-Never throw household garbage into any water bodies.
-Refuse to use non-biodegradable products, like plastics.

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