Essay on Pollution in English | Types, Causes and Effects

Hey buddy! Here we have written a wonderful essay on pollution. You will get that what is pollution? Types of pollution and its causes and effects. Let you take a glance below and increase your knowledge.

Pollution has become a major problem worldwide these days. Even the kids are getting aware of it. There was a time when pollution was almost nowhere. But nowadays, it is everywhere and directly affecting the environment. This all happening because of the wrong human activities. Such as transportation, dumping wastes, using non-biodegradable products, cutting trees, etc.

Different types of pollution have different effects on nature. Many species of animals and birds are getting extinct rapidly because of pollutions. Being responsible citizens of the next generation, we should need to know the causes and effects of pollutions and to further how to reduce it. Every student should learn how to write an excellent essay on pollution. Let see it below.

What is Pollution and Pollutant?

Pollution is the collection of harmful substances in the environment that leads to adverse changes. It directly affects our nature and climate. Pollution has been divided into three main types. Those are Water Pollution, Air Pollution, and Soil Pollution. However, there are some more types of pollution available in nature.

Now, what is a pollutant? A pollutant is a substance that causes pollution. It could be developed into nature in both ways, naturally (such as volcanic eruption, forest fire, ozone) and by humans (such as transportation, wastes, factories). The pollutants are very harmful and lead to damage to the quality of water, air, and land.

Types of Pollution

We have seen earlier that there are mainly three types of pollution. Those are Water Pollution, Air Pollution, and Soil Pollution. But there are also some more types of pollution, such as Noise Pollution, Radioactive Pollution, Light Pollution, and Thermal Pollution. Different types of pollutions have different effects on the environment. Let you see below the essay on various types of pollution.

  • Water Pollution

Water pollution is the collection of different pollutants into the water bodies (such as ocean, lake, river, groundwater). Pollutants include plastics, sewage waste, and wastes from factories, etc. These pollutants are being dumped directly into the water bodies that are causing water pollution. It mainly affects the aquatic animals and the coastal areas, peoples. Nowadays, almost a maximum of aquatic animals is getting extinct only due to water pollution.

Not about aquatic animals only, but it also affects human beings very seriously. According to the Lancet study, water pollution caused 1.8 billion deaths in 2015. And now in every year, contaminated water has become the reason for the sickness of about 1 billion peoples. These numbers are increasing rapidly. Moreover, unsafe water causing several diseases, like Giardia, Cholera, Typhoid, etc.

Water is the most precious gift from the god which everyone needs to survive. We just need to tackle out this problem straightaway. So, never pollute any water bodies, and try to conserve water. Also, try to follow the rules and regulations of the government on water pollution.

  • Air Pollution

Air pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere caused by the harmful particles present in the air. Those particles might be in solid or gaseous form that developed from many sources. Air pollution sources, such as vehicles, factories, dust particles, volcanic eruptions, deforestation, etc.

Air pollution could cause several diseases to humans (such as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer) and even sometimes leads to death. A Report has been reviewed that more than 7 million peoples are dying every year due to this air pollution. It can directly infect the plants and ecosystem and contaminate the soil and water bodies.

Petrol and Diesel vehicles are the chief sources of air pollution. And that’s why the world is working upon EVs (Electric Vehicles). But still, we need to reduce the uses of the resources that cause air pollution. As air pollution could affect your lungs and respiratory health, you need to protect yourself from it. So, when you hear about the increment of air pollution in your surrounding areas. Try not to spend most of the time out of your home. Keep your windows closed and always take bath to clean out the dust particles from your body.

  • Soil Pollution

Soil pollution simply refers to the contamination of soil caused by toxic compounds and chemicals that have an adverse effect on the environment. Pollutants that cause soil pollution, such as Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Copper (Cu), Herbicides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc. The main cause of soil pollution is agriculture in which the cultivators or the farmers do improper use of pesticides. This leads to the degradation of soil and thus the soil lost its fertility.

Moreover, deforestation (cause soil erosion), urbanization, dumping of solid wastes caused soil pollution. It directly affects human health. Diseases caused due to soil pollution are coughing, wheezing, headache, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, etc. Apart from humans, it has also a bad effect on plants and animals’ life.

Plants that are grown in a polluted environment could accumulate a high concentration of pollutants via a process called bioaccumulation. This could further lead to health problems for the herbivores that eat these types of plants. It resulted in the loss and extinction of various animal species.

Soil is very important for every living organism to survive on earth. It is the main and the only source of food. If the soil pollution wouldn’t be stopped now, it could lead to a food crisis in the future. We need to follow the government rules that have made to reduce soil pollution. So that we can make our soil pure and fertile.

Major Effects of Pollution

Nowadays, pollution has become the main reason for several problems. Our environment, including humans, animals, and plants is getting affected due to pollution. It causing a large number of human deaths every year. Along with this, pollution is widely causing the extinction of several animals. Even the plants are facing problems with their growth.

We have earlier seen the main types of pollution. Different types of pollution cause different problems in the environment. Such as, water pollution mainly causes the death of aquatic animals. Air pollution mainly causes respiratory problems. And soil pollution mainly causes soil degradation and agriculture failure. Moreover, below are the major effects of pollution.

  • Pollution Causes Environmental Degradation

We know that pollution leads to the formation of CO2. This later resulted in a huge amount of smog in the atmosphere. The smog restricts the sunlight from reaching the earth’s surface. This makes an interference in the plant’s photosynthesis process, which means impeding their growth.

  • Pollution Causes Bad Health of Humans

All the types of pollution have some effect on human health. Air pollution affects the respiratory system that causes asthma and lung cancer. Moreover, air pollution causes throat inflammation, chest pain, cardiovascular diseases.

Water pollution mainly causes human skin problems, including skin irritation, infection, and rashes. Furthermore, impure water could cause diseases such as typhoid, cholera, and encephalitis, and hepatitis.

  • Pollution Leads to Cause Global Warming

Global warming is the most hazardous problem we are facing today. This all because of the emission of greenhouse gases, especially CO2. Vehicles, factories, and deforestation are the major cause of the increase in CO2. The increase of CO2 resulted in a high temperature that helping the glaciers to meltdown. This leads to the increase of sea level that may arise problems for the peoples living near coastal areas.

The ozone layer is the important atmospheric layer that helps prevent dangerous radiations from reaching the earth. But global warming affecting the ozone layer that resulted in holes in the ozone layer. Therefore, radiations from the sun are coming directly to the earth. This could cause skin cancer and affect eye health and the immune system.

How to Reduce Pollution?

We just saw the causes and the dangerous effects of pollution. Now it’s our duty to prevent such activities that cause pollution. Air pollution can be controlled by decreasing the use of vehicles that emits harmful gases. We should use the latest vehicle that has low polluting consistency or use electric vehicles. Moreover, preventing firecrackers during festivals could reduce air pollution and well noise pollution.

We should need to avoid non-biodegradable products (such as plastics, metals, glasses, toxic chemicals, etc). Avoiding these products could cut down the soil pollution effectively. Never throw wastes anywhere, instead use a proper way to store it. You have to be always conscious about these activities and make others too. Take steps along with your society to make an eco-friendly environment in your surroundings. We should plant more and more trees that help to clean our atmosphere.

When talking on a broad level to reduce pollution, the government must ban the industries that throw their wastes into rivers and oceans. Along with this, the uses of fertilizers should be limited to prevent infertility in soil. Keeping this all, the government has taken many prominent steps to control pollution.


Pollution is now a worldwide problem we are facing. Humans are playing a key factor in increasing pollution. However, there are also natural ways that cause pollution but are negligible. It is a crucial situation that needs to be stopped immediately. Before it will be too late, we need to measure prominent steps to control the increasing pollution. If we do not take it seriously, the day is not far when doomsday will be upon us.

Hope you will follow the given instructions to help to make pollution-free earth. Please share your feedback that how much you loved the essay on pollution.

FAQs Essay on Pollution

The collection of unwanted and harmful substances that leads to adverse changes in the environment is known as pollution. Those substances could be in any form of matter, such as solid, liquid, or gaseous.

The substances that cause pollution are called pollutants. Substances like toxic chemicals, plastics, metals, factory smoke, vehicles, etc. These are some pollutants that cause pollution.

There are mainly three types of major pollution.
-Water Pollution
-Air Pollution
-Soil Pollution
Some more types of pollutions are noise pollution, thermal pollution, and radioactive pollution.

There are many dangerous effects of pollution while it could be on humans, plants, or animals. Generally, pollution causes respiratory problems, cancer, skin infection, chest pain, typhoid, and much more. Deforestation leading to the formation of CO2 that causing the high temperature in the environment. Today, water pollution resulting in the extinction of aquatic pollution. Not this all, but there are also many effects of pollution that could hit the environment seriously.